सोमवार, 18 सितंबर 2017

19 सितम्बर का महत्व ( हिंदी और इंग्लिश में)

On 19th September

19 सितंबर आज का इतिहास

1891-विलियम शेक्सपियर के प्रसिद्ध नाटक 'मर्चेंट ऑफ वेनिस का मैनचेस्टर में पहली बार मंचन किया गया।

1893- स्वामी विवेकानंद ने शिकागो (अमेरिका) के विश्व धर्मसंसद में ऐतिहासिक भाषण दिया।

1893- न्यूजीलैंड में निर्वाचन अधिनियम 1893 के तहत सभी महिलाओं को मतदान का अधिकार दिया गया। जहॉं चुनाव सुधार कानुन द्वारा महिलाओं को यह अधिकार दिया गया। न्यूजीलैंड की महिलाओ ने 28 नवम्बर सन 1893 में होने वाले चुनावों में पहली बार अपने इस अधिकार का प्रयोग किया।

1907- पहली बार इतिहास में कृत्रिम तेल का निर्माण हुआ। इस नये पदार्थ का आविष्कार स्काटलैंड के रसायनशास्त्री जेम्ज़ यांग ने किया था। यांग, पत्थर के कोयले की खदान के मालिक थे और उनके पास एक प्रयोगशाला थी पत्थर के कोयले के आसवन से उन्होंने कृत्रिम तेल बनाने में सफलता प्राप्त की थी।

1936- हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत के सिद्धहस्त विष्णु नारायण भातखंडे का निधन हुआ।

1955- अर्जेंटीना की सेना और नौसेना ने विद्रोह करके राष्ट्रपति जुआन पेरोन को पद से हटाया।

1957- अमेरिका ने नेवादा के रेगिस्तान में पहला भूमिगत परमाणु परीक्षण किया।

1982-स्कॉट फाहमैन ऑनलाइन संदेश का इस्तेमाल करने वाले पहले व्यक्ति बने।

1996- ग्वाटेमाला और वामपंथी विद्रोहियों की सरकार ने लंबे समय से चल रहे युद्ध को समाप्त करने के लिए एक शांति संधि पर हस्ताक्षर किए।

प्रमुख घटनाएँ
नासा ने चांद और मंगल ग्रह के अलावा अंतरिक्ष यात्रियों को ब्रह्मांड के दूसरे ठिकानों पर भेजने के लिए स्पेस लाँच सिस्टम (एसएलएस) नामक 100 टन तक वज़न को अंतरिक्ष में ले जा सकने वाले एक भव्य रॉकेट की रुपरेखा तैयार की।

अख़लाक़ मोहम्मद ख़ान 'शहरयार' को उर्दू साहित्य में उनके योगदान के लिए २००८ का ४४वाँ ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार प्रदान किया गया।

1960 the Indus River (also known as Sindhu River) water sharing settlement was signed in Karachi between India and Pakistan, by then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President, Mohammad Ayub Khan.

The treaty came about because Pakistan feared that since the source of River Indus lay in India, it could possibly result in drought and famine in Pakistan, especially during times of war. Though, India never cancelled the treaty even during the Indo-Pakistani wars in 1965, 1971 and 1999.

Ever since the acceptance of the treaty in 1960, India and Pakistan have never had any water wars. Disagreements which later cropped up were settled using a legal framework and hence this treaty is considered to be one of the most successful water sharing treaties in the world.

The water of the Indus basin originates in the Himalayan Mountains in Jammu and Kashmir and Chinese Tibet. The waters flow down the mountains, across the state of Punjab, they then enter Pakistan and flow through Sindh, finally draining into the Arabian Sea, south of Karachi. The bountiful River Indus ensures that there are many canals and water storage facilities along its banks, which provide water for more than 26 million acres of land-making it the largest irrigated area of single river system in the world.

Independence in 1947, followed by the Partition of the country into India and Pakistan led to a disagreement over the waters in the Indus basin. Both countries had to decide how they were going to manage this single network of irrigation. After Partition it was noticed that the source of River Indus was in India and Pakistan was wary about this, since India had control over the tributaries which fed into the Indus basin on the Pakistani side. Since most of Pakistan’s livelihood depended on this river, Pakistan felt threatened by India having control over the river.

Initially, following the first year after partition the water of the Indus were administered by the Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4th 1948. The accord states that India was to release enough water to Pakistan in exchange for an annual payment from Pakistan's government. However, this accord only met the early requirements of the nations and hence there was a need for a long term solution. At that point neither India, nor Pakistan wanted to compromise and soon the negotiations between both countries came to a standstill. From where India looked at it, Pakistan had no power over what India chose to do in terms of diverting the flow of water in the rivers. Pakistan’s stand was bleak as it could not do anything to stop India from diverting the waters in the river. Keeping in mind the seriousness of the situation, Pakistan suggested that the matter be taken to the International Court of Justice, but India said that the solution of this conflict lay in a bilateral resolution.

Help was sought from the World Bank which suggested a plan for both countries which involved financial help from the UK and the US. Eventually on 19th September 1960 in a treaty arranged and negotiated by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in Karachi, Pakistan. The treaty gave rise to the Permanent Indus Commission, which is required to meet regularly and make plans for the development of the river basin. Both countries need to inform each other of how they plan to engage in engineering work and also provide data about such constructions. In case there is a disagreement between both countries an impartial person is called for settlement of the dispute. Though there has not been any conflict of the kind the Commission was set up to deal with, an annual inspection and sharing of data continues, unruffled by the political tension in South Asia.

Also on This Day:

1936: Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande passed away.

2000: Karnam Malleswari won the Olympic bronze medal for weight-lifting. 

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