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शनिवार, 29 जुलाई 2017
IMPROVEMENTS IN FOOD RESOURCES PART-II
(Chapter – end)
1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield. Ans. To ensure high yield various cropping patterns can be very useful. The cropping patterns to be mentioned here are: (i)mixed cropping (ii)inter cropping (iii)crop rotation
Mixed cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land, for example, wheat + gram, or wheat +mustard, or groundnut + sunflower. This reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of one of the crops. Inter-cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern (as shown below). The crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients supplied, and also prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field for example, soyabean + maize, or finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia). Crop rotation is growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession. Depending upon the duration, crop rotation is done for different crop combinations. The availability of moisture and irrigation facilities decide the choice of the crop to be cultivated after one harvest. If crop rotation is done properly then two or three crops can be grown in a year with good harvests. 2. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields? Ans. Manure helps in enriching soil with nutrients and organic matter and increasing soil fertility. The bulk of organic matter in manure helps in improving the soil structure. Fertilizers are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers), giving rise to healthy plants by providing specific nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. 3. What are the advantages of inter-cropping and crop rotation? Ans. 4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices? Ans. Plant breeding or hybridisation method that involves crossing two different plant varieties to obtain a new and better variety is called genetic manipulation. In agricultural practices to reduce the application of insecticides and fungicides or even fertilizers such varieties are being prepared that are: ·high yielding ·pest resistant ·resistant to environmental stress ·don’t need fertilizers for good growth All these features help not only to improve quality and quantity of products but also reduces chances of environmental pollution. 5. How do storage grain losses occur? Ans. There are various biotic and abiotic factors responsible for the storage grain losses: ·biotic factors: Insects, rodents, bacteria, fungi etc that feed on grains. ·abiotic factors: Unfavourable conditions of humidity and temperature. 6. How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers? Ans. Animal husbandry is the scientific management of animal livestock. It includes various aspects such as feeding, breeding and disease control. As the population increases and as living standards increase, the demand for milk, eggs and meat is also going up. Also, the growing awareness of the need for proper treatment of livestock has brought in new limitations in livestock farming. Thus, livestock production also needs to be improved. This improvement can be brought about by good animal husbandry practices like providing good food and preventing diseases in the cattles that will benefit farmers to obtain better quality and quantity products. 7. What are the benefits of cattle farming? Ans. Cattle farming has dual benefits: (i)Draught animals for farm labour (males)i.e. for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting. (ii) Milch animals (dairy animals) those are milk producing females. 8. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping? Ans. For increasing production, steps that are common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping are as follows:
·good varieties/breeds are used. ·good nutritious food is provided. ·hygienic conditions/cleanliness is taken care of 9. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, Mari culture and aquaculture? Ans.